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Afghanistan Government



Traditionally Afghanistan has been the conglomeration of several ethnic societies. These societies are self-governed based on traditions. To provide leadership, the people choose their chiefs, known as known as Begs or Khans. The central authority loosily holds these ethnic groups. Kabul has tenuous control of the provinces, most of which govern themselves on most matters. Historically Afghanistan has been the part of various empires based in India or Central Asia. The British, for a long time, had a loud say in the government affairs of Kabul. In the time of Najibullah, Kabul tried to exert tight control on the provinces, but had to face armed resistance. Then came the period of Civil War and after that Taliban. The international community tried to introduce concept of modern state in Afghanistan. Here is brief information on the governance system of Afghanistan.

Transitional Period
Afghanistan Government After the ouster of the Talibans from power, prominent Afghans met under UN auspices in Bonn, Germany. After several rounds of hectic parleys, Afghan Interim Authority, made up of 30 members and headed by a chairman, was constituted. It was given a six-month mandate, followed two-year transitional authority. Structure of transitional authority was anounced by Loya Jirga (Grand Assembly). The Transitional Authority held the meeting of constitutional Loya Jirga to adopt the constitution. Thereafter, first ever general elections were held in Afghanistan.

First Democratic Government
As the result of general elections, first democratic government came to power in Afghanistan. Loya Jirga was replaced by the National Assembly. Presidential form of government was adopted with a bicameral legislature. Steps were taken to constitute an independent Supreme Court. Due to decades of war, administrative and economic conditions of Afghanistan were in shambles. The democratic government, headed by Hamid Karzai is striving hard to bring Afghanistan back on tracks, with the active participation of all ethnic groups.

Administrative Structure
The Afghans are learning the modern way of administration, and in the process, experimenting for their own model. The system is plagued by number of problems including fragmented administrative structure. Low salaries mean that few people with significant administrative and management skills continue with their job. Institutions of high education suffered drastic decline in the decades on conflict. Hence few people with required educational background are available in the country. The government is trying to establish merit-based recruitment procedures. Current administrative system is slow and cumbersome.

Finance of State
Domestic revenue system of Afghanistan is not well geared. Current internal revenues cover less than half of the state's expenditure. Hence the government is dependent on fforeign aid. With assistance by foreign experts, the government is striving to develop sound administrative capacity, capable of assessing and collecting taxes throughout the country. The government is taking steps to prioritise expenditures and increase revenues.

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